Research Report Writing-Electricity Using Habit in Vietnam

1. Executive summary
This report expresses an academic research about “Electric using habits in Vietnam”, that shows the perception of using electricity among Vietnamese people, their daily life actions of using power and the different, as well as the recommendation about their awareness and their performance.
There will be a small overview of lacking power situation in Vietnam that is providing by a monopoly company- EVN. The Objectives part will give clear purposes that the report aims to. Before analyzing data, the methodology and implementation are the fully descriptions of how this report was completed, why the survey and interview are delivered and the obstacles that Horton team met when performing. Data Result is the most important part that shows the analyzed outcome of this academic research. By separating the data result in to ages and gender, the objectives of report are clearly pointed out. Based on the parts of Data Result, Horton team found out the recommendation about the method to use power effectively for both Vietnamese government, Vietnam Electricity company as well as Vietnamese people.
Horton team hopes that this report will be helpful for Vietnam young electricity industry and as a part of suggestion for Vietnamese people to save electricity effectively. Horton team also wants to say thanks to all of respondents, friends and the lecturer who helped Horton to complete this research.

Table of Contents
1. Executive summary 2
2. Introduction 4
3. Objective 4
4. Methodology 4
5. Implementation 5
6. Data results 9
6.1 People perception 9
6.1.1 Perception by gender 9
6.1.2 Perception by age 11
6.2 People actual actions 14
6.2.1. Differences actions between gender 14
6.2.2. Differences actions between age 15
7. The differences between perception and actual actions 17
7.1 The differences base on gender 17
7.2 The differences base on age 18
8. Recommendation 18
9. References 19
10. Appendix 20

2. Introduction
Lacking power has been too familiar in Vietnam over few recent years. According to EVN in 2008, the corporation can only supply 60% of demand which is the main reason lead to cutting off power continuously in summer, causes a serious damage to production process of many manufactures and people in all over the country. The situation can become more severe if Government and Vietnamese people do not take any activities in to account to reduce the amount of electric power consumption. Using electrical energy ineffectively also causes other major problems to the earth such as global warming and nature resources exhausted. Being aware of the situation, Horton team decided to do an academic research about the habit of using electricity in Vietnam not only to complete the course’s requirement but also to find out about the way Vietnamese people using electricity, whether it is effective or not. From there, the team hopes to be able to point out some possible solutions to support solving the problem. This report will include sections like objective, target, methodology, implementation, data analyzed, and some recommendations.
3. Objective
The objectives of Horton team for doing this project firstly to identify how people usually use electrical power in their house, the different patterns between young and old, rich and poor people. Secondly, the aspect that we pay most attention to is people perception of how to use electricity in the right way and what they actually do. Finally, based on results that would have been collected and analyzed we aim to provide some practical solutions in order to support to the lacking power situation and additionally to raise people awareness about the important role of using electricity effectively.
Because electric power is indispensable to everybody so the data collected for final project will target at anybody in different age, gender, occupation and education level. Therefore, Horton project will be accomplished with help of RMIT students and teachers, friends and relative.
4. Methodology
The final project will be completed through the collection of secondary and primary information. Horton decided to do surveys and interviews to collect primary data. The reason for choosing those methods is firstly survey displays as the most convenience method to get response from many people as it only takes few minutes to get the sheets back. Furthermore, some ranking questions or question includes number will be arranged clearer through survey. Additionally, interviews will help the team get more detail on specific area therefore data analyses will be more convincing with accurate evidences. Besides, secondary information will be useful sources to enrich information in the project.
5. Implementation
Before writing this final project, we listed out three topics that we want to research and made up a brief outline for these topics. Then, all of Horton team members has reached the agreement to do a academic research about the topic “electricity using habits in Vietnam” in week sixth. It was not hard for Horton team when choosing this topic because we thought that it is an extensive topic as well as relating to people daily life, so we can easily concentrate on many fields of this topic with full of secondary and private information on the media or from public. However, the performance was not easy as we thought before. The first difficulty we faced when finding the secondary information to support and orienting our objectives was that most of the information we found was too old to use. Then, we decided to search the secondary source based on the small ideas that come up in our writing than the main objectives.
However, we recognized that searching the secondary source is the easiest part of our task when Nga made up the surveys’ questions and Tho did the interview questions. From the first time the questions set up, it was changed lots. In week seventh, after delivered forty surveys, we got lots of feedback from lecturer and respondents also. We imaged that all of our delivered surveys will be abrogated when the lecturer advised us to change some questions in our survey to make it clearer for respondents to answer. Fortunately, we can also use the results from delivered surveys because it will not change the surveys result. After the first adjustment, the surveys form was also changed several times such as the ages levels, questions’ from, questions’ required, etc., but it did not cause any changes in the surveys’ result.
Besides that, spreading 300 surveys as our target was too hard for our team that included only two members and the surveys’ delivering time was so longer than we planned. We had to bring them anytime, asked everybody we met to help us but how can we generate them into different gender, ages or area to make the result accurately, and objectively are considerable. Luckily, we had a long holiday in week 10 and we have time to survey in our countryside. As a result, it was so interesting in summarizing our surveys result. But, until week 11 we got only 237 surveys, which means 80 surveys are left as our target before. Thus, we have decided to work with 220 surveys instead of 300 with the equal number of male and female. On the other hand, we completed 10 interviews successfully with the different interviewees’ positions as our target at the same time we delivering surveys.
Nevertheless, analyzing surveys and interview result cost much more time than we thought. We tried to separate the surveys questions following our report’s objectives but the numerous of the surveys’ results make us so confused. Many questions came up in our mind: how can we decide which question belongs to the other parts of objective, how can we list out question 5 with the ranking answer of each respondents, how can we combine and calculate the result of the questions, etc. Half of week 11, Horton team members did not talk to each other, avoid talking about final project and refreshing ourselves. Left time of the week, everything became easier with many ideas came up in our mind and we started to write the ‘Data result’ part as the other parts were completed before in week 9 and 10. We import our surveys results into excel tool and translate the result into percentages. By this way, we now can compare the results of different level of age or genders. While writing this part, we continued to find the secondary information to support and compare with the data result.
We completed our final project before the deadline two days, but we regret that we cannot have the feedback of our work from the lecturer because we were too busy with the other courses’ assignment. Because of the lots changes through the performing time, our Gantt chart was also changed.

6. Data results
Base on objectives that was set before and through all the collected information, the Data results section will be divided into separate parts such as People Perception, Actual Actions and the Difference between them. Besides, each part is a small comparison base on different gender and age.
6.1 People perception
6.1.1 Perception by gender
The perceptions of how people think about using electric facilities are very important because it influences on their behavior. Through the findings, it is so surprise that almost all respondents of both genders do not know or do not even care about the output of the facility that they use most. Meanwhile, there are only a handful of people be aware of how much their electricity consumers. However, as it shown in the surveys, the capacity and the facility did not match with each other.It can be considered as a small stuff so people tend to ignore however, it might lead to the wrong behavior of consuming electric power. Because of it, people might use electric facilities habitually and therefore, power will be wasted.

When was asking about the impact of the way using electric energy, most people have right perception of what elements can be affected. It is obvious to see that budget is the highest effect, following are global warming and Natural resources exhausted that inside them female responded to be effected more on budget than male by 88 and 73 ticks, respectively. The role turns oppositely when 73 male assumed that the way people use electric power will impact on global warming while there are 61 female chose that answer. The impact on Air Pollution, Human Health, Country and Natural resources are all ticked by similar number of both male and female. However, as the number of female is higher than male in choosing the answers it can be said that female likely concern about the impact of electric consumption more than male. It is also proven by 11 male said that it has no impact on them while one 1 over 3 female have the same choice.
People know well about the impact of electric using, but do they know how to save power? The answers are represented in the following graph. It is clearly to see that turning off the facility when it is not in use are chosen by the majority respondents. The evidences are also shown in the interviews results, almost all people answered that they will turn off the lights, TV or fan when they do not need to use it any more. However, female are more likely to save power by this method rather than male as it got 95 votes comparing with 89 votes from male. Other ways to save power such as use low capacity facilities or use in low mode are less frequently known as the number of people responded to these answers takes around half of the first method. Besides, male who do not know any method to save electric energy are outweigh female and according to Mr. Matthew (2009) his brother does not really care about the way he uses electricity even when he was being reminded.

To conclude, through the data that were displayed in the graphs, it can be summarized that female are more aware of the ways to use electric energy and how it might impact on them as well as on other major factors like the Earth, the country and Human health.
6.1.2 Perception by age
There are some perceptual differences of electric usage between genders that analyzed above, in this sections the data will also be compared within three different age groups.
First of all, concerning about the awareness of electric output, the findings between young and old people is like chalk and cheese. While the number of people belong to old group (more than 40 years old) have the highest attention to the output of their facility, young people (from 16 to 27 years old) contribute to the group which has the highest number of respondents deny to notice about the electric capacity. It is because the old people are more careful and they have more experiences, it also explains why this group has the lowest number of people do not care about the electric output. However, there is a positive token that the young group tends to start being aware of electric energy by 36% (even higher than middle age group) people said that they care about the facilities’ capacity that they use most. Besides, the middle age group has quite similar figure of both people who care or do not care about electric capacity by 20% and 25%. It might be due to the reason that at this age people more concern about their job or their new family (just married people) rather than paying carefully attention on electricity usage.

People perceptions of how to use electric power have many effects on not only their life but also on variety factors such as the environment, country, and human health. As it illustrated in the graph below, young people have the highest percentage response in every option. It can be considered as a great sign that the youth generation is now being aware more about the consequences of wasting electric energy. Meanwhile, the middle age plus old group only take less than 50% on the effects. It is understandable that because the young people now work with technology more and they update information faster and more frequently than the elders. On the other hand, there are 86% of young people answered that there is no impact on them. It might be due to the reason that they are not the person who pay electric bill. According to Mr. Thai (2009), he said that he has never used electric power effectively and even the new price has been set up he will not change his pattern. This is a typical example of many young people perception today.

The last thing that is taken into account as perception is methodologies to save up power.

The graph above illustrates percent of response to five options of the way people use to save energy based on different ages. It is clearly to see that, although the old people know more about electric output but their knowledge of methods to save power is not much. For the available options like turn off when not in use, use in low mode or use low electric output the elders occupy only 1 over 3 in each answer comparing with the total number of people ticked for these options. On the other hand, the young group has highest percentage in all three ways to save power yet, the number of young people who do not know any method is still the highest with 53% behind is the middle age group with 29%. This group also responses with the lowest percent in all saving power methods.
Generally, though old people know more about the output of electric facilities but the are not aware much about the impacts of electric usage on environment, country as well as
6.2 People actual actions
6.2.1. Differences actions between gender
The actual actions based on the way how people consuming electric power every day.

And as it shown in the graph above, there are 65 female said that fridge is used most in their house while there are only 24 male responded for this answer. It can be understood because female always do more housework than male and fridge is on all the time, that is why fridge is assumed as the most frequently used facility by female. On the other hand, TV and Computer are used more by male with somewhat more than 30 people chose. The numbers of female who use those facilities are takes less than a half of male. Moreover, light is also chosen as the most frequently use at home by an equal number of male and female.
The facilities that listed above are mostly used in rush hours. According to the interviews results, all respondents answered that they use light, TV, Computer in addition with fan, A.C, fan and rice cooker from round 5:30pm to 10pm. however, the way people use electric facility is different. For example, according to Mrs. Thuy (2009) she does not consider about how much facilities will be turn on at this period. For which electricity is need she will turn it on without any irresolution. Therefore, in the evening she might turn on all the lights, use rice cooker, fan, water heater, TV, computer at the same time. Beside, as Ms. Thuy stated that, she lives on her own so there are not many electric facilities are using such as light, computer and fan. Because of those facilities are indispensable and they have to be on the same time in the evening so she tend to use it habitually without any concern of how to use them effectively or in a save way. On the other hand, Mr. Quan as well as Mr. Matthew (2009) claimed that he always tries to use electric power effectively and they did some methods, which are the same as were mentioned in the perceptions part such as turn off when not in use always to be careful.
Male Female
Yes 58 71
Sometime 42 34
No 10 5

In support, a table indicates how often people follow saving power methodologies that they are aware is shown above. Positively, more than 90% people try to save power. However, the number of female answered for yes (always) is more than male while the number of male said that they do not often save power is more than female. Besides, the majority of interviewees both male and female responded that they often remind other people in their house to economize on electric power. Regarding to children, number of respondents believed that reminding children is one way to teach them how to save thing as they consider it is a good manner.
In general, there is not much different of the way people use electricity based on gender. However, female performed as the more careful gender on how to use electric energy.

6.2.2. Differences actions between age

As it is displayed on the graph above, light and TV are the facilities that almost used equally across the age and fridge still be considered as the machine that use most. In the group from 16 to 27 years old, fridge is considered as the facilities that used most by 29% meanwhile the proportion in middle age and old group is much higher than by 42% and 48% respectively. TV and light are also voted as the most electric facilities that frequently in use. Moreover, computer is used mostly by young people but less to middle age group with 15% and only 6% ole people use computer. The reason is clear, because younger people have been familiar and work with high- tech product more than old people. However, as it stated in the interview, people tend to set their facility on standby mode rather than turn it off totally.
Beside, as it shown in the table below the percent of how many people follow their methods to save power every day. It is clear to see that, the oldest age group has the highest percentage of people always use their way to save power and has the lowest percent response to Sometime and No option. On the other hand, the group age from 16 to 27 years old has lowest percent of people usually do as what methods they perceive is good to save power by 52% less than the middle age group 10%. Alternatively, this range of age also has the highest percent answered that they sometime use methodologies to save power or never at all by 40% (8% higher than middle age) and 8% respectively.

Age 16-27 28-40 >40
Yes 52% 62% 69%
Sometime 40% 32% 25%
No 8% 6% 6%

Additionally, it is more obvious evidences from the interview results support in to this section. For example, almost old people asserted that they will turn off any facilities that not in use, remind other people to use power in save way more as well as they are more likely to change to new pattern electric consumption due to the new price. Nonetheless, according to Mr. Thai (2009) he will not change the way he is consuming electric power even new higher price has been set up, the same idea came from Mrs. Thuy also.
To summarize, young people tend to have less effective actions to save power rather than old people. The major reason is highly because of they do not have to pay money so they do no care much about it. Therefore, electric energy is considered as a unlimited resource and they use it rashly.

7. The differences between perception and actual actions
7.1 The differences base on gender
As it was analyzed in previous section, there are not many contraries between perception and action based on gender. Male represent for the gender that have better knowledge on not only electric output but also they are more aware of the lacking power situation that Vietnam is facing. Considering to impacts of the way people use electric energy, both male and female have right perception of all the elements can be affected as the figures in every option is quite high. However, Male performs worse than female in saving power, they less frequently save power and according to the interview result 4 over 5 male stated that they would not worry much about the amount of electric power every day if they were rich. Generally, the majority of male have right perception about electric energy, its impacts, methodologies to reduce amount of electric consumption but they do not actually the one who use power in a save way. In contrast, female are more careful in using electric and they often use it more effectively. They also remind other people to save power more than male. However, female perceptions tend to emphasis more on money than other factors. It is because they are the people who often directly pay the bill then money it is the most obvious impacts to them.
Moreover, when the team was doing survey it was a huge gap between families of the way they consuming electric power. There are many families which have 4 people and the amount of money they pay for electric bill monthly is around less than VND 100,000 but there are also many families pay from VND 500,000 to VND 1,000,000 even VND 5,000,000. They all have the same number in a family but the huge different showed in the bill indicates that rich people are wasting a lot of energy.
7.2 The differences base on age
The differences between perception and actual action within age groups are clearer than in gender especially between the youngest and the oldest group. The young people now have chance to update information quicker than the elders so they are more aware of impacts from using electric power to human being, and to the earth. The number of young people knows how to save power is not small yet, they not turn off the light or computer if it is not in use more often than the older. Besides, most frequently the elders like mother or father in the house is the only one person who remind other people to save power not young adults or children.
On the other hand, and as usually old people are always more careful in using electric power. They might not be aware of the lacking power situation, and they might not know various way to save power but they take the highest proportion in using basic methods to save power.
8. Recommendation
Through all the data results, as it easy to that many people do not use electric power effectively, therefore a large amount of energy is wasting every minute. Hence, after doing data analyses, Horton decided to recommend some simple but very practical solutions in order to support saving electric power.
As there is up to 97% people are willing to join any power saving campaign, we suggest that government, EVN as well as other associated organizations should launch more campaigns (as it now rarely has much campaign to save power) to raise people perceptions and to be more aware of impacts on human and the environment.
Besides, as the new price has been set up many people responded that it is not good or terrible and they do not like because mostly the answer is they have to pay more money. However, it is considered as one of the effective way to encourage people saving energy as it straights forward to their budget. Furthermore, increasing electric price will attract more company invests on this industry consequently the quality will be alternatively higher.
For the most frequently use facility like fridge, computer and TV, we recommend some tips which are very helpful but easy to follow. For example, with TV reducing the backlight system, or choose the suitable contrast and brightness as well as take out the plugsout of the socket will help you to save a moderate amount of money every month. Computer also has many ways to reduce the electric energy consuming such as reduce the brightness of screen, turn off when you finish using rather than set it in standby or hibernate mode and remember not to set screen saver because this application consumes a lot of energy. It is suggested that fridge should not be opened frequently because it will causes more energy.
Usually, when buying some kind of new electric facilities, people should pay attention to which machine has Energy Star because it saves power more than other kinds. There is also a good way to save power is to take all the plugsout of the socket if your family is out for holiday or vacation.
9. References
EVN website, 2009, viwed 24th April, 2009

Phong, P.H., 2006, ‘Stanby mode’, 12th November, viewed 23rd April, 2009

‘ Tips to save electricity’, 2008, viewed 23rd April, 2009